Wildflower and Seedling Identification Guides

Canada Mayflower

Canada Mayflower

Maianthemum canadense

: False Lily-of-the-Valley
: common in dry to moist woods
: 3-6 inches
: 2-3, alternate, parallel veins
: 1/8th inch long
: white
: May-early June
: a red berry
: leaves clasping at base and somewhat heart-shaped, flower in a raceme (flowers on a stalk). Rhizomatous (creeping), may form a mat.

Parallel veins in leaves appear prominent

Close-up of flower (raceme)

Mat covering forest floor

Confusing Look-Alikes

Lily of the Valley

Lily of the Valley

Convallaria majalis

: occasionally naturalized in woods & disturbed gro
: 8 inches
: 2-3 alternate, parallel veins
: 1/4 inch across
: white
: April-early June
: a red berry
: fragrant bell-shaped flowers on a raceme. native to Europe, may act invasively.

Bell-shaped flowers

Indian cucumber-root

Indian cucumber-root

Medeola virginiana

: moist woods
: approx 3 feet tall
: 1 or 2 whorls of 5-8 leaves
: small, appears above top whorl, may be 2-3 flowers per plant
: yellowish
: late May - early June
: a dark purple or black berry
: whorls of usually 5-8 leaves, stem usually fuzzy and wiry close to ground

Flowers hang from top whorl

Whorl may have 5-8 leaves

Berries atop whorl

Flower arises from top whorl

Confusing Look-Alikes

Similar whorl of leaves but no top whorl present
Star Flower

Star Flower

Trientalis borealis

: frequent in moist woods
: approx 4-8 inches
: whorls of 5 to 10 leaves, leaves are narrow, unequal sized
: 1-4 flowers per plant, petals, 1/2 inch across
: white
: May-June
: small, dry brown globular capsule
: distinctive flowers, features based on sevens: seven leaves, seven petals and seven sepals

Flowering plant

Flower close-up

Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Arisaema triphyllum

: common in moist woods, swamps, bogs
: approx 3 feet
: 3 leaflets
: white, green or maroon, streaked
: Late April-June
: a cluster of red berries
: Distinct flower shape

More prominent mid-vein

Entire plant, showing leaves

Confusing Look-Alikes

Trillium

Trillium

Trillium spp.

: moist woods
: 1 - 1.5 ft, except for Snow Tri llium (6 in.)
: three, in a whorl
: found at the center of the whorl of leaves
: white, maroon, pink, yellow or green
: April- May
: a berry
: whorl of three leaves, flower is made of three petals

Large-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) - white or maroon flowers

1, 2, and 3 leaved white trillium

Leaves form an equilateral triangle shape

Purple trillium (Trillium erectum) - maroon flower, leaves are stalk-less

Painted trillium (Trillium undulatum) - white with pink center, leaves are on petioles that come out of the center

Trillium

Trillium

Trillium spp.

: moist woods
: 1 - 1.5 ft, except for Snow Tri llium (6 in.)
: three, in a whorl
: found at the center of the whorl of leaves
: white, maroon, pink, yellow or green
: April- May
: a berry
: whorl of three leaves, flower is made of three petals

Large-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) - white or maroon flowers

1, 2, and 3 leaved white trillium

Leaves form an equilateral triangle shape

Purple trillium (Trillium erectum) - maroon flower, leaves are stalk-less

Painted trillium (Trillium undulatum) - white with pink center, leaves are on petioles that come out of the center

Confusing Look-Alikes

Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Arisaema triphyllum

: common in moist woods, swamps, bogs
: approx 3 feet
: 3 leaflets
: white, green or maroon, streaked
: Late April-June
: a cluster of red berries
: Distinct flower shape

More prominent mid-vein

Entire plant, showing leaves