Selected References

Anderson, R.C., 1994. Height of white-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) as an index of deer browsing intensity. Ecological Applications, pp.104-109.

Diefenbach, D.R. and Fritsky, R.S., 2007. Developing and testing a rapid assessment protocol for monitoring vegetation changes on state forest lands. Unpublished manuscript. US Geological Survey, Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Pennsylvania State University.

Horsley, S.B., S.L. Stoudt, and D.S. deCalesta. 2003. White-tailed deer impact on vegetation dynamics of northern hardwood forest. Ecological Applications 13:98-118.

Kirschbaum, C.D. and Anacker, B.L., 2005. The utility of Trillium and Maianthemum as phyto-indicators of deer impact in northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 217(1), pp.54-66.

Koh, S., Bazely, D.R., Tanentzap, A.J., Voigt, D.R. and Da Silva, E., 2010. Trillium grandiflorum height is an indicator of white-tailed deer density at local and regional scales. Forest Ecology and Management, 259(8), pp.1472-1479.

Rawinski, T.J. 2016. White-tailed Deer in Northeastern Forests: Understanding and Assessing Impacts. USDA Forest Service, Newton Square, PA. Available at

Royo, A.A., Stout, S.L. and Pierson, T.G., 2010. Restoring forest herb communities through landscape-level deer herd reductions: Is recovery limited by legacy effects? Biological Conservation, 143(11), pp.2425-2434.

Rooney, T.P., 2001. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: a North American perspective. Forestry, 74(3), pp.201-208.