Selected References

Anderson, R.C., 1994. Height of white-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) as an index of deer browsing intensity. Ecological Applications, pp.104-109.

Blossey, B., Curtis, P., Boulanger, J., & Dávalos, A. (2019). Red oak seedlings as indicators of deer browse pressure: Gauging the outcome of different white‐tailed deer management approaches. Ecology and Evolution, 9:13085– 13103.

Diefenbach, D.R. and Fritsky, R.S. (2007). Developing and testing a rapid assessment protocol for monitoring vegetation changes on state forest lands. Unpublished manuscript. US Geological Survey, Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Pennsylvania State University.

Horsley, S.B., Stout, S.L., & deCalesta, D.S. (2003). White-tailed deer impact on vegetation dynamics of northern hardwood forest. Ecological Applications 13:98-118.

Kirschbaum, C.D. & Anacker, B.L. (2005). The utility of Trillium and Maianthemum as phyto-indicators of deer impact in northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 217(1), pp.54-66.

Koh, S., Bazely, D.R., Tanentzap, A.J., Voigt, D.R., & Da Silva, E. (2010). Trillium grandiflorum height is an indicator of white-tailed deer density at local and regional scales. Forest Ecology and Management, 259(8), pp.1472-1479.

Marquis, D.A., Ernst, R.L., & Stout, S.L. (1992). Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of the Alleghenies. (Revised). Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-96. Broomall, PA: USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station, 101 p. (download PDF at

Rawinski, T.J. (2015). Ten tallest method for assessing deer impacts. Unpublished.

Rawinski, T.J. (2016). White-tailed Deer in Northeastern Forests: Understanding and Assessing Impacts. USDA Forest Service, Newton Square, PA. Available at

Royo, A.A., Stout, S.L., & Pierson, T.G. (2010). Restoring forest herb communities through landscape-level deer herd reductions: Is recovery limited by legacy effects? Biological Conservation, 143(11), pp.2425-2434.

Rooney, T.P. (2001). Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: a North American perspective. Forestry, 74(3), pp.201-208.

Waller, D.M., Johnson, S.E., & Witt, J.C. (2017). A new rapid and efficient method to estimate browse impacts from twig age. Forest Ecology and Management, 404, 361–369. (download PDF at

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